Vitamin k and its Benefits
Distribuction :- Vegitable sources are rich, such as cabbage, spinach, alfalfa, tomat, soyabean, etc.It is absorbed from the intestine with the help of bile salts. Moust putrefied Animals plants contain considerable amount of vitamin K.
Function :- It helps to maintain the formation of normal prothrombin and factor VII in the blood and theus takes part in normal coagulation. It has been postulated that vitamin K acts as the prosthetic group to an apoenzyme to produce a holoenzyme which is involved in the clotting reactions.
The haemorrhagic disease in the new-born is belived to be due to lack of vitamin K, since vitamin K deficiency in the new-born is due to absence of bacteria in their gut. An important therapeutic use of vitamin K is as an antidote to the anticoagulant drugs such as dicumarol.
Deficiency Signs :- Defective blood coagulation and haemorrhages.
Daily Requirement :- Normal mixed diet supplies this vitamin in adequate amount. In the treatment of haemorrhagic diseases produced as a result of vitamin K deficiency, 5 mgm is
Given either orally or by injection.
The vitamins of B complex comprises about a dozen of chemical substances.
THIAMINE (ANEURINE , VITAMIN B1)
(Antineuritic factor, Antiberiberi substance)
Vegetable Source :- Cereals ( in the husk and embryo) pulses, nuts, and green vegetables, i.e. beets, carrots, turnips, lettuce, cauliflower, pears, beans, etc. are rich sources. Polished rice and white flour are poor in this vitamin content.
Animal Sources :- Generally poor.Yeast and egg-yolk contain fair amount (100 i.u) Free thiamine is absorbed readily from the small intestine . It is not much stored in the body.
Function :- 1. The pyrophosphate ester of thiamine is a coenzyme (cocaroxylase) and being bound to a specific protein( apoenzyme) together with a – lipoic acid and Mg++ forms the active enzyme carboxylase, which is responsible for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid, a ketoglutaric acid and other keto acids.
2. It help the enzyme system which is responsible for the synthesis of fats from carbohydrates and proteins.
Deficiency Signs, Beriberi :- may be classified as dry , wet cardiac or mixed type.:-
- Dry beriberi is associated with disorders of the nervous system.
- In wet beriberi, the polyneuritis is accompanied by oedema.
- Cardiac beriberi is associated with sign of congestive cardiac and circulatory failure.
The general manifestations is Beriberi are as follows :-
1. There is oedema specially in the legs .
2. Loss of appetite , atony of the gastro- intestinal tract, hypochlorhydria etc. All these are due to lack of energy derived from the imperfect metabolism of carbohydrate.
3. Blood changes – lactic and pyruvic acids accumulate in blood.
4. Same changes are found to take place in peripheral nerves, brain and cerebrospinal fluid.
The peripheral neruritis or polyneuritis, with the tenderness of muscles of feet and legs,
ataxia and muscular weakness, is a characteristic feature.
5.Heart also becomes weak and enlarged, which is obviously due to accumulation of pyruvic acid. Cardiac failoure may also occur in some subjects.
Daily Requirement. About 1.8 mgm for a diet producing 3,000 calories. The requirement is increased in pregnancy, lactation, heavy muscular work, high carbohydrate diet, etc. Daily intake for children range from 0.4 mgm for infants to 1.3 mgm for pre-adolescents. Requirement of thiamine increase in shock, haemorrhage, serious illness or injury, during oral administration of antibiotics etc.
LIPOIC ACID ( THIOCTIC)
For a certain micro-orgaNISM AND PROTOZOA ,A –LIPOIC ACID IS GROWTH FACTOR WHICH IS USUALLY CLASSIFIED AMONG THE VITAMIN b Complex. This is also known as acetate replacement factor,, pyruate oxidation factor or protogen.
Properties :- This compound is soluble in fat.
Distribution :- Widely distributed in natural source.
Function :- Lipoic acid is required along with thiamine and some other members of vitamin B in the oxidative dccarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acety CoA and a-ketoglutaric acid to succinl CoA.
RIBOFLAVIN (VITAMIN B2 LACTOFLAVIN)
Properties :- It is orange yellow crystals, solouble in water to a limited degree and in soluble in fat-solvents. It is heat –stable in neutral and acid media, but sensitive to light, unstable in alkaline solutions,stands ordinary cooking and canning.
AnimalSources :- Milk, liver, kidney,muscle, eggs.
Vegetable Sources :- Whole grain, green leafy vegetables. It has also been synthetically prepared.
1. Essential for growth.
1. 2. Both FMN and FAD in combination with protein play major role in a numberof enzyme system and the enzyme containg this vitamin called flavoprolein. Riboflain present in various enzme systems in its two forms :-
2. Riboflavin is related to the metabolic process of proteins.
3. It is also an integral part of the prosthetic group of acyl CoA dehydrogencase the enzyme which mediates the first oxidative step in the oxidation of datty acid.
4. A suggestion has been made that riboflavin play some in cornea and deficiency profuces corneal vascularisation. But this is still controversial.
Deficiency Signs :- The tissues which have originated from ectoderm ( e.g., nervous system, skin, eye) are first affected. In man
1. Mouth(a) Cheilotic fissures at the corner of the mouth and ulcers on the lips
b) Angular stomatitis
c) Glossitis ( magenta tonge)
2. Eye Keratitis, corneal opacities, vascularisation of cornea and photophobia.
3. Skin loss of hair and dry and scaly skin.
4. Arrested growth occurs.
Daily Requirement :- 1.5 to 1.8 mgm in adults. The daily requirement of riboflavin can be calculated in term of protein intake, i.e. 0.025 mgm of riboflavin per 1 gm of protein.
NICOTINIC ACID(NIACIN) AND NICOTINAMIDE(NICOTINIC
ACID AMIDE, NIACINAMIDE)
(Peliagra-preventing factor,p-p factor of Goldberger)
Properties :- Nicotinic acid is a white crystalline substance and is moderately soluble in water but quite solyble in alkali ( salt formation), alcohol and glyceride.It is heat –stable and not lost during cooking or canning.
1. Essential for growth.
2. Takes essential part in metabolism and tissue oxidation.
3. Helps in the formation of fats from carbohydrates. Niacin may reduce the plasma lipid concentration of fats from carbohydrates.
4. Prevents pellagra.
5. It has a stimulating effect on central nervous system.
6. In therapeutic doses,niacin produces the pronounced transient vasodilation with flushing of the face .
Deficiency Signs. :- The cardinal symptoms of this condition is generally known as the three D’s , i.e. dermatitis,diarrhea, and dementia.Deficiency results characteristic dermatitis,specially on the exposed parts of the body. The dermatitis begins with erythema resembling sun burnt areas. Gastro-intestinal disorders,polyneuritis and various forms of mental disorders are observed. Cerebral manifestations include headache, irritability, confusion , etc. General effect are inadequate growth and anaemia. In dogs-Black tongue .
Daily Requirement :- 12-18 mgm for adult males and a little less in adult femalers.
PANTOTHENIC ACID ( VITAMIN B2)
( Chick antidermatitis factor, Filtrate factor )
Properties :- The free acid is a viscous,yellow oil, soluble in water and ethyl acetate but insoluble in CHCL3. It is heat-labile and destroyed in acid and aljali.
Distribution :- It is widely distributed in small amounts.
Animal Source :- Liver, Kidney, Egg-yolk, Yeast, Milk,etc. are rich source of this
Vegetable Source :- Molasses wheat bran, peas, sweet potatoes, etc. contain this vitamin in appreciable amount. It has also been produced synthetically.Blood contanins 9-31 u gm per 100ml.
Function :- The physiologically active fromof pantothenic acid is coenzyme A (CoA) It is essential for several basic reactions of metabolism.acid (TCA) cycle,in combination with cholline forms acetycholine and also acts as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, etc.
2.Coenzyme a plays an essential part in lipid metabolism. Activation which occurs by formation of a coenzymeA derivative is the first step in fatty acid oxidation.
3. Panthothenic acid is not present in the peotein bound from. This protein bound pantothenic acid is the acyl-carrier protein (ACP) and is required for the biosynthesis .
4. It might activate some amino acids.
Deficiency :- Dermatitis, fatty liver, degeneration of spinal cord, myclin degeneration of peripheral nerves, and involution of thymus in chicks occur by the deficiency of this vitamin. Various tissues are also the skin and hypo function of adrenal cortex.
Daily Requirement :- Not exactly known. Average daily diet contains 10 mgm which satisfies this vitamin requirement.
PYRIDOXINE (VITAMIN B6)
Properties :- This vitamin is a white, crystal, soluble in water and heat-stable in both acidic and alkaline solutions.
1. It takes part in normal tryptophan metabolism. Because. (a) Kynurenine and xanthurenic acid are excreted by rats made deficient in pyridoxine. The above products are not on the main metabolic pathway of tryptophan metabolism and considered as producs of side reactions.
2. Helps in transulphurase and thionase reactions converting homocysteine and cystationine to cysteine.
3. The coenzyme is required in the synthesis of amino levulinic acid-an intermediate in porphyrin synthesis.
4. Pyridoxal phosphate is an intermate component of phosphorylase a of muscle.
5. It is suggested that pyridoxine is involved in the active transport of amino acids and certain metallic ions across cellmembranes.
6. There is increased evidence that vitamin B6 is intimately concerned with the metabolism of the central nervous system.
Deficiency Signs :- Perculiar dermatitis ,reduced growth, degeneration of the nerves, reproductive failure and hypochromic microcytic anaemia, weakness of muscles and convulsive seizures occur in absence of this vitamin.
Daily Requirement. :- In infants 0.3 mgm and in adults 2mgm per day. It is sufficiently present in normal diet.
FOLIC ACID (PTEROYLGLUTAMIC ACID)
(Fermentation residue factor)
Properties :- It is a yellow compound, slightly soluble in water and destroyed by light.Itis soluble in dilute alocohol and can be precipitated as barium or lead salt.
Distribution :– Liver ,kidney, gree leafy vegetables and cauliflower are good sources of this vitamin.
1. Folinic acid acts as a coenzyme in the transfer of formy and hydroxymethyl group in different biological system in the biosynthcsis of purine, synthesis of the methyl group of methionine etc. in the one carbon metabolism.
2. It is indispensable for the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid in the nuclei of cells. Takes part in the formation and maturation of the red cells.Along with vitamin B12 it helps in the synthes of nucleic acid.
3. It is used in the treatment of megaloblastic anaemia.
Deficiency Signs :- In rats and monkeys arrested growth, anacmia leucopenia and agranulocytosis . In man Megaloblastic anaemia especially occurring during pregnancy.
Daily Requirement :- Not exactly known. Average daily diet of adults contains about 50 micro-gram,which seems to be adequate.